Thursday, September 30, 2010

The Sun

All too often we take our sun for granted. The sun provides plenty of sunlight and warmth, and the plants use the sunlight for photosynthesis, which then feeds the hungry mouths of herbivores and omnivores alike. The animals are then devoured by predators, the predators die and return back to nature. It all comes from the sun, and even ancient philosophers recognized this fact, and they adorned the sun with tales and names and myths and throned it as god.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

對霍金的肯定與否定--你肯定吗?

好久没有用华语写部落格咯。。今天就训练训练手指和耐心吧。

刚刚看到一篇文章。

“對霍金的肯定與否定”

神学家拼命用物理学来打击无神论者的信心,用些科学家,比如史托克(George Stokes, 1819~1903),以及被譽為電學之父的英國科學家法拉第(Michael Faraday, 1791~1867)来做比喻。好样的!

Monday, September 27, 2010

God's Power Diminishing?

That's a provocative title I have to say.

But Martin Robbins gave a better one:

Is God scraping the barrel for miracles?

Image:searchlores.org

He was relating a BBC's coverage on Deacon Jack Sullivan, who miraculously recovered from an operation (yeah, now the Vatican is declaring miracles for people who survive an operation XD). Unfortunately it was not convincing enough and surely the atheists took their time to deliver some sharp and fiery arguments.

Animal Mimicry-- The Art of Deception

Mimicry is an art.
Human seeks to mimic animal call, other humans, a certain repertoire for the purpose of hunting, defence, or simply to entertain. But even a seasoned mimicry artist of our world would have paled in comparison to some of the masters of mimicry of the animal kingdom.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Why do we have hair....at "various" parts of our body....?

Have you not wonder why? Why we have armpit hair... why we have... pubic hair....?

Guys are supposed to have short hair, girls are supposed to have long hair, with some exceptions of course. Guys are supposed to have hairy legs and at times, hairy chest. Guys have hairy legs and chest due to testosterone, and if guys start taking progesterone, then the hair stops forming on the legs and arms.

Friday, September 24, 2010

Do Dragons Exist?

If they don't exist, then how did they end up in different cultures all across the world? Unless everyone had observed the same thing, or else dragons would only be a minute part of a certain civilization.

Cultures and civilizations all across the globe are separated by distance and time. They are uniquely defined in terms of knowledge, philosophy and fate. Some went extinct; some invented the compass; some created paper. Yet all of them have one thing in common; the existence of a ferocious, fire-spitting, huge serpent-like creature, and with its wing(or no wing) it could soar thousands of miles, spreading fear into the communities below.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Automatic Teller Machine

You're short on cash, so you walk over to the automated teller machine (ATM), insert your card into the card reader, respond to the prompts on the screen, and within a minute you walk away with your money and a receipt. These machines can now be found at most supermarkets, convenience stores and travel centers. Have you ever wondered about the process that makes your bank funds available to you at an ATM on the other side of the country?


Alright, it's just a computer mounted on the wall, with a simple keypad, a screen monitor, a built in printer, and an opening for money dispensing. The question that baffles me is the way the ATM smartly select the correct amount in accordance to our request and collect the money from various compartments that eventually comes out from the dispensing opening.

Saturday, September 18, 2010

Rwanda Genocide 1994

Actually I was contemplating on writing about Taliban. Unfortunately the scope is too wide, covering its history, ideology, treatment of women, etc. After reading through 25 pages of information on wikipedia, I'm not entirely sure where to begin.

While reading through some Taliban articles on the TIME magazine last night, I came across the word genocide and the idea of writing about Rwanda came to my mind.

Thursday, September 16, 2010

Malaysia Day

16th September 2010.

What better way of celebrating Malaysia Day than to attend the Arangetram dance graduation of an ex coursemate~

Arshween Kumar is the name.



I was invited by Arshween to attend the performance, and he added "food will be provided", though that's not the main reason that attracted me but it was a bonus =)



And apparently I was surrounded by Indians, and some of them are hoT! I never knew Indian girls could be so hot =P and was grateful I made it there.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

What does human meat taste like?

Seeing that topic in another blog makes me wonder now.

Humans, technically speaking, are omnivores. We take meat as well as vegetable. And from our long list of meat-menu there is this bipedal animal dubbed the Homo Sapien. Are you not curious? Head hunters in Borneo were well known for cannibalism, though the practice has since been decimated following the arrival of Christianity. Tribal groups in Africa practise cannibalism, because food is

Fanatical atheism can be as ugly as religious fanaticism.

Growing up in a Christian family makes me think that Christianity is superior to other religions, which is irrational to an atheist and followers of other faith. Similarly, an atheist holds the belief that religion equals superstition, which, in the eyes of believers, is purely blasphemous.

Reading a well-written piece by Alom Shaha is like staring at myself in the mirror...

Too often we are blinded by what we believe in, to the extend that some of us regularly spit ludicrous comments about what others are believing in. Many atheists and "skeptics" seem to have a habit of implying, if not directly stating, that people who believe in god/homeopathy/psychics are stupid. They think that tackling such beliefs is a question of dispelling ignorance, of educating people in the "right" way of thinking.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

River Dolphins

Second day of Raya, and I'm here pathetically writing something to cool myself off some problem earlier.

Yes we do have dolphins in rivers and lakes across the world. There are several species of river dolphin, normally named after the waterway in which they're dwelling in. They are different from their ocean cousin; they have smaller eyes, because even large eyes wouldn't get you anywhere in the murky water.

And they have flexible neck, which is unique to river dolphins. This gives them much greater manoeuvrability in the flooded forest and enables them to enter and swim amongst the roots and branches hunting and catching the fish that feed from seeds and berries.

Thursday, September 9, 2010

Global Warming and.... Global Cooling?


We have heard a lot about global warming, the melting icecap, rising sea level etc. Global warming has been popularized by environmentalists and politicians alike. Head of various governments gathered at the Copenhagen Summit in 2009 to discuss ways to mitigate the rising temperature of our planet. There are, however, some parties who refuse to acknowledge the existence of global warming. Global warming, they claim, is a hoax, created by the science community to achieve certain political purposes. The earth, they say, is actually experiencing a reverse effect called
Global Cooling

Global Warming
What causes global warming?

Our transportation system, industries, and cow farming release million of tonnes of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, etc into the atmosphere every year. These gases have a special characteristic; they absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range.


When the amount of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere increases, they absorb the heat from our sun and trap it within our atmosphere. The heat cannot escape out to space and thus the temperature of earth increases. This is just like the way greenhouse works, and hence its name "greenhouse effect".

This situation is further exacerbated by deforestation; plants need carbon dioxide to undergo photosynthesis to create food. By eliminating the trees, we are eliminating the carbon sink of Mother Nature.


Although our oceans are absorbing carbon dioxide too, but recent discoveries suggest that our oceans are becoming too acidic and had lost their appetite for the gas~

Global Cooling

So why global cooling?

On the surface of the sun, there is this thing called "sunspot", a dark patch on photosphere with lower temperature compared to its surrounding. Sunspots are caused by the intense magnetic field of the sun, causing the inability of the core to convect energy efficiently to the photosphere, and thus creating sunspots. Sunspots have lower temperature, typically around 3000K, compared to its surrounding, which could reach 6000K.


Sunspots would lead to solar flare and solar wind. These are charged particles flung out from the surface of the sun due to the magnetic field. In the movie 2012, the solar wind is the reason why our earth got "cooked" from the inside and thus triggering the Yellowstone Volcano, but it's a hoax anyway, just a movie.

Solar Flare

The number of sunspots varies in a 11-year cycle, and the number gathers to produce a graph called the Butterfly Diagram.


We can see that for the year 2010, the number of sunspots hits minimum. Since the number of sunspot is directly proportional to the average temperature of the earth, hence we can conclude that the sun is emitting less heat at earth. Bingo!
This is the reason why there are scientists suggesting global cooling instead of global warming.

But wait a minute.

The sun is not the main culprit of global warming. Global warming is due to the increment of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere that causes the heat from the sun, although not as much, cannot escape out to space. It has not much to do with sunspot minimum or maximum. Of course it is one of the contributing factor but even with lower sunspot activity, the heat from the sun still accumulates in our atmosphere and causing the temperature to rise.


So global warming is true after all.

Again! More amazing discoveries!

National geographic reported that the ice in Antarctica is growing in size(we have heard of the opposite; the melting of icecap, I guess not many of us know about the ice growing in Antarctica).

Why is that possible, especially with our temperature rising annually? Are they not supposed to melt under higher temperature? Why are they growing in size? Something wrong with the ice?

Well, it is yet another effect of global warming, and El Nino.

El Nino is a quasi-periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean on average every five years, which causes the warming of the ocean. It is a natural phenomenon.

Flooding due to El Nino

When the temperature rises, water vapor accumulates in our atmosphere. And some of the vapor fall as rain, while some are blown to the pole and fall as snow.. as simple as that. Bingo!

It is, however, imperative to understand that the rate of ice growth will never surpass that of rising temperature. Eventually the rising temperature will catch up with the rate of ice growth and cause the ice to melt, this time in greater amount!


So.. global warming is not a hoax. It is true. China is the largest contributor of greenhouse gases, with 6.2 billion metric tonnes of greenhouse gases released in 2006 alone. US, in second place, has put shame to Herself by releasing 5.8 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases in the same year.

We all know the threat poses by global warming. Lowland would complete submerge in water, places like Venice would be completely wiped off the map.

We are encouraged to reduce, reuse and recycle. Is it really that hard to lend Mother Nature a hand when she's having fever? I guess not. =)



Malcolm

info:
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/11/091118-oceans-carbon-sink-global-warming.html

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/08/100816-global-warming-antarctica-sea-ice-paradox-science-environment/

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/copenhagen-climate-change-confe/6762640/Copenhagen-climate-summit-global-warming-caused-by-suns-radiation.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming#Politics

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Religion VS Science

One thing I've learned from the university:
Don't trust anybody, not even your lecturer and your parents. Go find it out yourself. Do research, go online and find multiple sources to convince yourself. Don't just listen to one side of the story. Yes, I agree and have become somewhat good at it

What is science?



Science is, in its broadest sense, any systematic knowledge that is capable of resulting in a correct prediction or reliable outcome.

Via this definition, we can conclude that if we execute a given method, the outcome would always be similar, regardless of the person who executes it.

In layman term; if we all throw an apple upward into the sky, it will eventually fall to the ground, no matter who does it.

Religion, on the other hand, is not so simple.

Religion is the belief in and worship of a god or gods, or a set of beliefs concerning the origin and purpose of the universe.

In religion, there could either be one god, or multiple gods. And these gods act randomly; ie there is a probability of a miracle happening right there and then, but it will not always be the same, and it doesn't happen to everyone.



That's the most fundamental problem with religion. Religion claims that everyone is equal in god's eyes, well I think everyone IS EQUAL in science. Miracle doesn't happen to everyone, but whoever throws an apple upward will end up being hit by the apple on the head.



Religion is a very effective/potent weapon. Religion could trigger war, for example the war between the crusaders and the Ottoman empire. Religion caters for the most vulnerable aspect of mankind; emotion, and that is why there are so many emotional people gathering around sacred places seeking advice on how to handle stress and other emotional problem. Because we are an emotional creature.



And because of this, religion has never fallen short of pilgrims. There are always people who are willing to do what it takes to please the gods. For example Jihad; war to defend the religion from filthy hands. The extremists claimed that they were doing jihad against America, by killing innocent people? That's one pretty extreme thinking. I agree that some people are bad, but not all people from a particular race are bad, that's racist, and that is what Adolf Hitler believed in.



True enough, religion also suppresses human behavior. Without religion we are no better than animals, or are we? In fact there is no homosexuality in the animal kingdom(except for some highly intelligent animal, eg dolphin), no incest, no child sacrifice. But with the emergence of religion, in the Mayan and Chinese civilization for example, child sacrifice became popular as a way of pleasing the gods. Cannibalism were integrated into spiritual ceremony, for example the Druids of ancient Britain, and again the Mayan civilization.

Today, however, religion has skewed away from its proper path. Today I read a news about a church in Florida that plans to burn copies of Koran on 11 September in memory of those who perished in the event. I thought the bible teaches us to forgive our brothers, and to love our enemies. Are they not deviated?



Also a news about the spiritual leader of a Buddhist sect who claims to be the Living Buddha. He claimed that he was endorsed by the Dalai Lama as an authority in Tibetan Buddhism, which was later denied by sources close to the Dalai Lama. He was accused of raping one of his female disciples in 2000. I don't wish to publish the website address here. I may not know the whole story, and I shall not judge solely by listening to only one side of the story. I'll leave it to you all. But when a person is caught lying, it might be just the tip of the iceberg, you may never know how much he has been lying all these years...



The same is happening in Singapore, where a pastor of a glamorous church gets probe over alleged mis-usage of church fund. Good job~ bro, you just put a stain on the banner of Christ.

Racism aside, religious dispute is by far the worst crisis that hits modern humanity. Religious tension are making our everyday headlines now. Given the freedom in cyberspace, people are free to make fun of other religion, and become really good at it.

So... with so much problem plaguing religion, why has nobody turn to science?

For most people, science is something too technical to handle. For lawyers, for example, science is just beyond their comprehension(according to my sister who is a lawyer).

Well the truth is, science is fun. And it is simple, logic and easily comprehensible, given that you are taught by an instructor of Richard Feynman's calibre.



And there are some religious people who thought they knew everything, trying to dispose the atomic theory and laugh it off by offering a much simpler explanation, and at the same time making fun of the mechanism of car engine, fan, mechanical stuff. Well for those of us who are in the field of expertise, we would regard this dude as another moron making a clown of himself.



Moreover, scientific frauds are easily detected. Every theory and law can be proven via experiment. Whereas in religious matter, no one knows when are u gonna get healed from your sickness, and no one can be sure about divine intervention. That is why the allegedly-corrupted spiritual leaders thought they could wipe away their shit stain by using the RELIGION banner; raping disciple and misusing church fund. Whatever they say is deemed correct by their fanatic followers.

For example the case above, the buddhist master is still at large, convincing his followers of his innocence in the sex scandal. Since they all are intoxicated by his words in the first place, they would probably nod hysterically at whatever he says.

One thing I've learned from the university:
Don't trust anybody, not even your lecturer and your parents. Go find it out yourself. Do research, go online and find multiple sources to convince yourself. Don't just listen to one side of the story. Yes, I agree and have become somewhat good at it =P



Malcolm

Monday, September 6, 2010

Tapeworm

Tapeworms are thin, resembling a strip of tape, which is why they are called tapeworm.

This parasitic creatures spend the early part of their lives in grazing animals and the latter part of their lives, when they reach adulthood, in digestive tract of meat eaters. Tapeworms absorb partly digested food through their skin from their host.

Sunday, September 5, 2010

Gulf Oil Still Around

Spilling a glass of milk is bad enough, spilling 4.9 million barrels of crude is a disaster of a lifetime.

Yes.

The title says it all. It's still around. Four months of cleaning and US$3 billion later, the slick is still around. Pathetic? Yes it is~

The wellhead was capped on July 15th, and the cleaning process followed soon after. Until recently, August that is, people have discovered oil residue in gulf beach sand.



In fact, scientists are still finding plenty of spilled Gulf oil—whether it's bubbling up from under Louisiana's islands, trapped underneath Florida's sugar-white beaches, or in the ocean's unseen reaches.



A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) report said that about 33 percent of the spilled oil in the water has been burned, skimmed, dispersed, or directly recovered by cleanup operations.


This is how they clean up the mess.. burning the oil. This in turn will release a vast amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.

Another 25 percent has evaporated into the atmosphere or dissolved in the ocean, and 16 percent has been dispersed via natural breakup of the oil into microscopic droplets, the study says.

The U.S. government estimated that the Deepwater Horizon spill had yielded about 4.9 million barrels' worth of crude, that's 4900000 barrels~~ a barrel holds 159 litre of crude. At Rm 1.85 per litre, that's equal to a staggering RM 1.44 billion!
That amount of petrol could subject my bike to 289 million refueling, or support 289 million-100 CC motorcycle for a week.



This has a long term impact on the environment. Thousands of birds and marine life died in the process. The effect of this oil plume will go on for decades, if not centuries.



Having enough trouble on board, BP tries to settle some of the debt by selling some of its assets to Petronas~ At the start of August, the group agreed to offload its Colombian business for 1.9 billion dollars to national oil company Ecopetrol and Talisman of Canada, and they are expected to sell off up to 30 billion dollars of assets over the next 18 months to settle the costs from the oil spill disaster.



Lucky for us, Mother Nature has her own soldier to combat this problem.

Oil-eating bacteria is hard at work at the crime scene to help us clean up the mess. The ocean is home to many groups of bacteria that can break down the chemicals found in crude oil. Some, like Alcanivorax, are oil-eating specialists that are usually found in low numbers, only to bloom when oil spills provide them with a sudden banquet. That’s exactly what has happened in the Gulf of Mexico.



Nonetheless, there is no room for complacency. Effective though the bacteria are, the oil contains some components that they simply won’t be able to break down and the sheer scale of the spill cannot be taken lightly.

So the lesson to all of us: don't spill anything. You cannot see what's hidden behind the consequences. Spilling a glass of milk is bad enough, spilling 4.9 million barrels of crude is a disaster of a lifetime.



Malcolm

info:

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/notrocketscience/2010/08/24/oil-eating-bacteria-have-started-to-clean-the-deepwater-horizon-spill/

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iio0iuCI6Aju2ambwIdTXdn8OOPg

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/08/100805-gulf-oil-spill-cement-static-kill-bp-science-environment/

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/08/100819-gulf-oil-spill-bp-underwater-plume-science-environment/

Saturday, September 4, 2010

Brainwashed?

Before coming to KL:

1)Was a devout Christian-believed that Science and Religion are compatible
2)Not so lanxi
3)Obliged by the rules and ethics of religion and humanity
4)Science is not the solution for humanity
5)Marriage is wonderful


Coming to KL:

1)Reject Religion-its our hormones and enzymes at work
2)Vanity soaring sky-high
3)ethics of religion and humanity-vain way of keeping us in check-there are so many examples of religious people turning into morons themselves-eg pastor of a church in Singapore, Marilyn Manson, a self-proclaimed Buddhist leader from Taiwan, a gay pastor establishing a gay church in Malaysia, the corrupted Vatican - whereas the general public who are not limited by religious constraints are acting more appropriately that those who are.
4)Science can explain everything.
5)Marriage is awful.


There are news about people coming back to life after death-I'm not buying it-The doctor who proclaimed the persons' death might be a poor doctor. He might have made a mistake-we often see that in poor countries-even rich countries-doctors are human too.

The instrument might be faulty, or better still, the person might have gone through a period of "death" without actually dying. There are animals in the animal kingdom that could "die and live again" for example virus, which could lay dormant for thousands of years until a suitable host appear. Also snakes, which are cold blooded. They would be frozen during winter, but as soon as the snow melts they'll come back to life~ also hibernating bears, whose heartbeat slows down to 27 per minute during hibernation, and crocodiles with 2 heartbeats per minute when holding its breath underwater.

Perhaps I really am screwed up mentally by physics. I can feel that I think differently-not becoming a genius, but becoming a screwed person. If I really become a scientist one day, I would probably be the sort of Evil Scientist we often see on TV.. reading too many thing screws up my mind... what's happening to me... I'M SO SCREWED.

Thursday, September 2, 2010

Pharaoh of Exodus

The bible says that Moses was raised in Egypt. He killed an Egyptian and escaped from the land until he was called to return to Egypt to deliver the descendants of Jacob from the oppression of the pharaoh. The attention of this entry is not on Moses, nor is it on the children of Israel, but rather towards the pharaoh himself, the antagonist of the story.



If the bible is true, then who is the pharaoh of Exodus? Here we have the Bible versus the history of Egypt. If the story in the bible is true, then we would have its timeline aligned perfectly with the historical record of Egypt.

Attention: This entry contains blasphemous content.

We are familiar with King Tut, King Seti I, Seti II, Ramses I, Ramses II, Tuthmosis, etc etc. Altogether there were approximately 322 known pharaohs in Egypt. There were many more who were chiseled off from history, be it from vengeance or murder, we will never know.

Although the bible never specifically identifies the pharaoh of the Exodus by name, it does tell us the exact date of the Exodus.

1 Kings 6:1 states that Solomon began building the Temple in the fourth year of his reign, 480 years after the Exodus.



Most bible scholars agree that the fourth year of Solomon's reign was 967 B.C. So the date of the Exodus can be calculated: 967 + 480 = 1447 B.C.

The bible says that the Pharaoh whose daughter adopted three-month-old Moses died when Moses was nearly 80 years old, meaning that the Pharaoh of the Exodus reigned for over 80 years. Pepi II, who ruled for 90 years, is the only pharaoh who meets this requirement.


King Pepi II

But King Pepi II was born in 2278 BC and died in 2184 BC, whereas the story of Moses was dated to be around 15th to 13th century BC. Way off the mark~

Bible scholars generally agree that Ramses II is the pharaoh mentioned in the bible. He built a royal city named Pi-Ramesse, many just assume him to be the pharaoh of the Exodus. However recent excavations at the site indicate that this city was occupied much earlier by the Egyptians. There is no way Ramses The Great could be the pharaoh that drown in the red sea. If he had drown, he wouldn't have a mummy at all for his body would have been swept away into the sea.



And according to history, Pharaoh Ramses II did not begin his reign until around 1290 BC, which is much later, so he couldn't have been the Exodus pharaoh.

King Amenhotep III, who fathers King Akhenaten, was also one of the candidates, though the suggestion was soon lifted for lack of evidence.
Ramses I died during year 2 of his reign, which is consistent with the content of the bible, and his time is also consistent with Moses's appearance in history; 13th century BC.


Oh my Lord, it must've been really cold down there in the underworld..~

Is Ramses I the pharaoh we're looking for?

The answer is NO.



Already an old man when he took over the throne, Ramses I probably died of old age. The evidence? Well his grandson, Ramses II has already been born during his accession. The pharaoh in the bible who chased after the Israelites drown in the red sea, so Ramses I is NOT the pharaoh we all are looking for.

If the history is correct, then is the bible wrong?

We all know that Egyptians are smart. They have their own calendar, they are very skilled in astronomy, mathematics, language. They built the pyramids. They respect women; there were three female pharaohs in their history; Hatshepsut, Nefertiti, and Cleopatra, and woman have equal rights as man. They had everything recorded down systematically, and so there is little probability that their chronology is wrong.


Queen Hatshepsut, the first female pharaoh in history

Moreover, their chronology is supported by carbon dating. Mummies are carbon-dated to verify the date of their death, and the technology is consistently accurate.

The first five books of the bible were written by Moses; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.



How can one person remembers the history before him so well? He escaped Egypt for forty years, how could anyone guarantees that he remembered the date correctly? I, for one, seriously doubt that. He wrote the story of Genesis, Noah's Ark, Abraham and Issac, etc etc. It's a miracle he could remember all of them so well.
Thus it is not surprising if he'd made some mistakes especially in terms of the date and the sequence of pharaohs.


Josephus

Tuthmose III
Jewish historian Josephus, who lived during the first century, wrote the followings about King Thutmose III:

" A state of war broke out between the Egyptians and the Ethiopians. At this time Moses had grown to be a man. The two sides fought a great battle in which the Ethiopians were triumphant, and they pushed to conquer all of Egypt. The Egyptians looking for help inquired of their priests. The priests revealed to them that they should make Moses their general . . . Moses then became the commander of a great army . . . In a surprise attack against the Ethiopians, Moses led his troops to victory."

It may be that Thutmose III, being jealous, took credit for victories over the Ethiopians, even though Moses achieved them.


Tuthmose III

But if one reads Exodus 14:30 carefully it states the following: "So the LORD saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore." This passage indicates that the dead bodies of the Egyptians were deposited on the shore of the Red Sea. This would have allowed the Egyptians access to his body for burial.


Not Convincing.

His arguments are ludicrous, as they are made based on assumption. There is no evidence in the bible to prove that Moses had led an Egyptian army against the Ethiopians.

Moreover, he also included that Hatshepsut co-reigned with her husband Tuthmose II and became the pharaoh of exodus, though actually she co-reigned with him for three or four years before Tuthmose II died from a skin disease. She then took over for the next 17 years as the sole ruler of Egypt until her death, allowing her nephew Tuthmose III to ascend the throne and chisel her off the history book.



One thing is for sure: Josephus's arguments are made in agreement with the bible, and pathetically skewed to align itself with historical record.

We will never find the pharaoh mentioned in the bible. Scholars have browsed through the entire chronology of egyptian kings from the 15-13th Century BC and found no one that fits the criteria in the bible.

Then I ask: Is the Bible wrong, or is it something wrong with historical record?



I'll leave that to your imagination~



Malcolm

info:
http://www.kingtutshop.com/freeinfo/ramses.htm
http://www.biblehistory.net/newsletter/moses_pharaoh.htm
http://www.bediz.com/hatshep/story.html
http://www.britannica.com/women/article-9039510
http://allanturner.com/pharaoh.html

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